What is the cause of a rash after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination?

“We describe a 17-month-old child with fever and rash after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Detection of vaccine-strainmeasles virus in his urine by polymerase chain reaction confirmed the diagnosis of a vaccine reaction rather than wild-type measles. We propose that measles virus should be sought and identified as vaccine or wild-type virus when the relationship between vaccination and measles-like illness is uncertain.”

The Medical Journal of Australia 1999

Transmission of the L-Zagreb mumps vaccine virus, Croatia, 2005-2008.

“We report on three cases of symptomatic transmission of the L-Zagreb mumps vaccine virus from three vaccinated children to five adult contacts. The five contact cases were parents of the vaccinated children and presented with parotitis and in one case also with aseptic meningitis. The etiology of the contacts’ illness was determined by viral culture, genomic sequencing, serology and epidemiological linking. Two of the vaccinated children developed vaccine associated parotitis as an adverse event three weeks following immunization.”

Euro Surveillance 2008 

A prefecture-wide survey of mumps meningitis associated with measles, mumps and rubella vaccine.

“A survey of untoward reactions, especially central nervous system reactions, after the administration of a newly introduced measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine in Gunma Prefecture, Japan, was initiated soon after 4 patients were hospitalized for aseptic meningitis. Thirty-five, 6 and 2 children developed meningitis, convulsive disorders and parotitis, respectively, within 2 months after MMR vaccination during the 8-month period extending from April to November, 1989.” 

The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 1991

Mumps vaccine virus transmission

“In this work we report the mumps vaccine virus shedding based on the laboratory confirmed cases of the mumps virus (MuV) infection. The likely epidemiological sources of the transmitted mumps virus were children who were recently vaccinated with the mumps vaccine containing Leningrad-Zagreb or Leningrad-3 MuV. The etiology of the described cases of the horizontal transmission of both mumps vaccine viruses was confirmed by PCR with the sequential restriction analysis.” 

Voprosy Virusologii 2013 

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