A Pneumonia Case Associated with Type 2 Polio Vaccine Strains

“A 3-month-old male infant with no underlying diseases was admitted to Beijing Haidian Hospital on July 31, 2015, where he was diagnosed with lobular pneumonia exactly 26 days after he had received his second dose of trivalent OPV (tOPV). The infant was born from a second regular pregnancy by normal delivery (35/36 weeks gestation, birth weight: 3550 g). The infant also received two birth dose vaccinations (the Bacillus Calmette–Guerin vaccine and hepatitis B vaccine), and no adverse reactions to the vaccinations were reported. The infant had no signs of immunodeficiency. His family had no history of travel in the months before he became ill.” 

Chinese Medical Journal 2017

Hepatitis B Vaccines—to Switch or Not to Switch

“Shortly after the licensure of Heptavax-B in 1981 and its general availability in July 1982, the discovery of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among male homosexuals threatened the success of this product, since some of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive plasma donors were members of this high-risk group. Intensive epidemiologic, virological, and serological evaluations were launched, which eventually found no evidence for the transmission of AIDS to recipients of the plasma-derived HBsAg vaccine.” 

JAMA 1987

Adverse events associated with childhood vaccines other than pertussis and rubella. Summary of a report from the Institute of Medicine.

“The committee found that the evidence favored acceptance of a causal relation between diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and Guillain-Barré syndrome and brachial neuritis, between measles vaccine and anaphylaxis, between oral polio vaccine and Guillain-Barré syndrome, and between unconjugated Hib vaccine and susceptibility to Hib disease. The committee found that the evidence established causality between diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and anaphylaxis, between measles vaccine and death from measles vaccine-strain viral infection, between measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and thrombocytopenia and anaphylaxis, between oral polio vaccine and poliomyelitis and death from polio vaccine-strain viral infection, and between hepatitis B vaccine and anaphylaxis.”

JAMA 1994 

Acquired autoimmunity after viral vaccination is caused by molecular mimicry and antigen complimentarity in the presence of an immunologic adjuvant and specific HLA patterns.

“Acquired autoimmunity syndromes occur after viral vaccinations. Molecular mimicry is involved in these phenomena as is the necessity for the presence of two chemically complimentary antigens and an immunologic adjuvant. The HLA pattern of the host is also an important factor. The example used to explain these phenomena is demyelinating disease that follows hepatitis B vaccination. The somatic antigen of the hepatitis B virus in the vaccine has chemical complimentarity with the Epstein-Barr virus antigen in the vaccine recipient. The Epstein-Barr virus shows molecular mimicry with human myelin. The immunologic adjuvant is either present in the vaccine or muramyl peptides in the individual who is vaccinated. Why more than one type of autoimmune disease occurs is explained by the fact that specific autoimmune T-cells have been shown to develop clones that attack multiple human tissues.”

Medical Hypotheses

Evolution of multiple sclerosis in France since the beginning of hepatitis B vaccination

“Since the implementation of the mass vaccination campaign against hepatitis B in France, the appearance of multiple sclerosis, sometimes occurring in the aftermath of vaccinations, led to the publication of epidemiological international studies. This was also justified by the sharp increase in the annual incidence of multiple sclerosis reported to the French health insurance in the mid-1990s. lmost 20 years later, a retrospective reflection can be sketched from these official data and also from the national pharmacovigilance agency. Statistical data from these latter sources seem to show a significant correlation between the number of hepatitis B vaccinations performed and the declaration to the pharmacovigilance of multiple sclerosis occurring between 1 and 2 years later.”

Immunologic Research

Vaccination and autoimmunity-‘vaccinosis’: a dangerous liaison?

“The question of a connection between vaccination and autoimmune illness (or phenomena) is surrounded by controversy. A heated debate is going on regarding the causality between vaccines, such as measles and anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV), and multiple sclerosis (MS). Brain antibodies as well as clinical symptoms have been found in patients vaccinated against those diseases. Other autoimmune illnesses have been associated with vaccinations. Tetanus toxoid, influenza vaccines, polio vaccine, and others, have been related to phenomena ranging from autoantibodies production to full-blown illness (such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA)). Conflicting data exists regarding also the connection between autism and vaccination with measles vaccine. This similarity may be the trigger to the autoimmune reaction. Other possible mechanisms are discussed. It seems that some autoimmune phenomena are clearly related to immunization (e.g. Guillain-Barre syndrome).”

Journal of Autoimmunity

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